The NHS offers woman in the United Kingdom information about pregnancy and labour. Some NHS Trusts have created short guides to educate woman about preparing for childbirth and perineal massage. Below is a list of such resources that were prepared by various NHS Trusts.
The guides include information about preparing for childbirth, perineal care, and a mostly positive perspective about the use of perineal massage as a tool to reduce the chances of perineal trauma.
Exercising, in particular, strengthening the perineal muscles or pelvic floor, has become increasingly important. It ensures not only a comfortable pregnancy for the mother but less stress during the birthing process for the child.
4th degree perineal tears are the most severe form of tear a woman can experience during the end stages of labor. There are in fact different degrees of perineal tears: Minimal tearing such as 1st or 2nd degree tears are common and expected. 3rd or 4th degree perineal tears occur more rarely.